In terms of total annual flow (cubic 5390 km) Africa is behind Asia and South America. Pools area, length, volume of flow, many rivers are among the largest in the world (Nile, Congo). The distribution of the river network and runoff throughout the continent extremely evenly, that depends mainly on differences in climatic conditions, topography and nature of the rocks of certain areas. Along with areas with dense hydrographic network and large lakes, vast spaces of Africa or almost completely deprived local river network. Many rivers do not reach the ocean and end up in landlocked endorheic basins. Almost all the rivers of the continent are fed by rain. Only in the deserts and semi-deserts diet of their soil, and the high peaks of the Atlas mountains and Eastern Africa the sources of the rivers are fed as melt water of snow and glaciers.
The longest river of Africa – Nile (6671 km) at the same time and the longest river of the Earth. The area of the basin of the Nile – 2870 thousand sq. km. the source of the Nile – the river Rukarara in the system of the Kagera river, originating at an altitude of 2000 m. In the next part – between lakes Victoria and albert (Mobutu-CECE-Seko) the river is called Victoria Nile. After crossing lake albert, the river receives the name of the albert Nile. In the upper course, the river flows into the bottom of the gorge, Continue reading
Karelia is often called the land of lakes and rivers. The abundance of freshwater bodies, it is much superior to other areas of the Soviet Union and such foreign countries as Finland, Sweden and Canada, also famous for its abundance of lakes. On the territory of Karelia over 60 thousand big and small lakes with a total area of over 42 thousand square km, including the largest lake in Europe — Ladoga and Onega.
Only one third of the Karelian lakes — waste, the other ows have. Closed to include numerous forest ponds, usually with peat marshy shores, called Lambada. Large, medium and small lakes are part of the flow and often form lake-river systems, connected by rivers and canals. The flowage lakes is a positive one for living in them fish, because it reduces the likelihood of a fish kill caused by lack of oxygen in water in the winter.
The depth of the lakes that are important in fish life is quite varied. The greatest depths are typical for large lakes: Ladoga (260 m), Onega (120 m), Segozero (97 m). On small lakes depths usually do not exceed 3-5 m Deep places often alternate with underwater rocky bottom or shoals, called Lud.
Annual fluctuations of levels that are essential for spawning and juvenile Continue reading